The archaeological research revealed evidence of stable human settlements in the area, dating from the Neolithic period. Discoveries of researchers have confirmed the continued presence of residents in the vicinity of the river and the link between their occupations and living conditions in the Danube, but the first documentary of Giurgiu town are found only in the second half of the fourteenth century - mentions century and early years of the city and fortress Giurgiu before 1396 last year to raise the walls of the citadel Island from the order of prince Mircea the Old (1386-1418).
The name of the city seems to come from the name of a Transylvanian shepherd who being with the sheep grazed in the Danube Delta, released from the hands of the Turkish soldiers several groups of people who were to take the Ottoman Empire, to be sold as slaves and servants.
The liberated people settled in the Danube's Meadow, forming a fair that was named after their liberator. Another legend says the town's name comes from St. George's Island, which the Genoese merchants ventured to build a small commercial outpost, a fortress on this island.
The town was named San Giorgio (St. George) after the name of the holy protector of the Genoese. Giurgiu was mentioned for the first time indirectly in the Codex Latinus Parisinus in 1394, during the reign of Mircea the Elder, under the name of Zorio. The first documentary testimony of Giurgiu was made on 23 September 1403 in an official document, the Treaty issued by the Wallachian Chancellery and concluded at Giurgiu between Prince Mircea Cel Batran and King of Poland Vladislav Jagelo. Conquered by the Ottomans in 1420 in order to control the traffic on the Danube, Giurgiu was turned into 400 years old and called "Yergöģű".
Fortified fortress, Giurgiu played an important role in the Romanian and Turkish wars for the control of the Danube, the walls and fortifications heavily affected by the bombings were completely destroyed by order of the Russian army commander. Thus, the only remaining defense was the castle on Slobozia Island, connected to the shore by a bridge. The foundations of the present city were made after the Russian - Turkish war from 1828 to 1829, the first urban development project of Giurgiu was made in 1830. In the same year of 1830 the institution of the "magistrate" was established - equivalent to that of today's mayor - and on January 1, 1831, the first elected magistrate in Giurgiu, Alexandru Marişevschi, came into office. The modern age is marked by the elaboration of the Plan of the "Organic Regulation", with the drawing of a radial street network by Moritz von Otto in 1831. After this period, there appeared "some beautiful houses" and a church (the Holy Trinity) the streets of the city were stone-paved with walls of the city as well as the Danube. Around the Tower, built in 1771 as an observation tower and then turned into the Clock Tower, it is built according to the city's systematization plans, a concentric radial street system. With the signing of the Russian - Turkish Peace Treaty of Adrianople, the fortresses on the left of the Danube, along with their territories, are returned to Wallachia, the Danube boundaries between the Romanian Principalities and the Ottoman Empire are established, and Giurgiu becomes the capital of Vlasca County. Giurgiu begins a prosperous period of building places of worship, barracks for soldiers guarding the Danube, a prison, a sugar factory, the main streets are being built, the first private primary school is being established, projects for building the main roads connecting with Bucharest and projects for the construction of railways. In 1854 the first line of telegraph in Wallachia was established, between Bucharest and Giurgiu, and the first railway from the Romanian Principalities, Giurgiu - Bucharest, with a length of 70 km, was inaugurated on 31 October 1869. At that time (1871) it is proposed to build a bridge over the Danube in Giurgiu, but the proposal was rejected, so that the bridge over the Danube will only be built in 1952. In 1900 the Bucharest - Giurgiu road becomes the first stone-paved road in Romania, and later becomes the first Romanian paved road. In Giurgiu, in 1905, the first angled bridge in the world was built, built over the "St. George" Canal to the Danube Harbor. The two world wars cost Giurgiu many human sacrifices and have caused many destructions
The heroic battle of the soldiers, but also the moral strength of civilians who have not abandoned their city in their crowning moments, are immortal in stone or bronze, the monuments raised over time in all areas of the city. After the events of 1989, the city of Giurgiu experienced a period of economic regress and urban-urban stagnation. Since 1996, however, Giurgiu has resumed its ascendant course of development and modernization, dynamism being the defining feature of the present life of the city.
Giurgiu is situated in the south part of the country, on the left arm of the Danube river, on the border to Bulgarian town Russe, with a total area of 3,526 km². According to the latest official data (Census 2011) the population is 61,353 inhabitants. The municipality comprises the town of Giurgiu, with a total area of 52,3 km². The territory of Giurgiu is located in the forest steppe and meadow.
Authorities of the local public administration:
Giurgiu Municipality is a county seat, a second administrative-territorial unit. Giurgiu Municipality signs are represented by the coat of arms of Giurgiu Municipality approved by Government Decision no. 628 of 29 May 2003 and the Flag of the City. Local Council of Giurgiu Municipality Deliberative authority with headquarters in Giurgiu Municipality, Bulevardul Bucureşti, no. 49-51, the Local Council of Giurgiu Municipality consists of 21 councilors elected by universal, equal, direct and free vote, under the conditions provided by the Law of local elected representatives.
The local councilors consisted of five specialized committees on the areas of activity, as follows: a) Local, legal and discipline public commission b) Budget - Finance, Public and Private Public Administration c) Commission for Public Services, Labor and Social Protection d) Education, health, social - cultural, sports, cult and family commission e) Commission for Urban Planning and Territorial Planning, Environment Protection, Agriculture and Tourism.
The Mayor of Giurgiu is elected according to the law and is validated by the Judgment of the Giurgiu Court. The mayor performs a position of public authority, under the law. The mayor observes the fundamental rights and freedoms of the citizens, the provisions of the Constitution, the implementation of the laws, the decrees of the President of Romania, the decisions and ordinances of the Government, the decisions of the Local Council. In order to implement the competencies given in the above normative acts, the Mayor has a specialized apparatus he is running and is assisted by two deputy mayors, a public administrator and a secretary of the municipality, a public civil servant. The mayor, the deputy mayor, the public administrator, the secretary of the municipality together with the specialized apparatus are the GIURGIU CITY, functioning permanent structure that fulfills the decisions of the Local Council and the Mayor's provisions, solving the current problems of the local community.
Giurgiu City Hall is located in Giurgiu Municipality, Bulevardul Bucureşti, № 49-51. Giurgiu County Council is the authority of the local public administration constituted at the county level in accordance with the provisions of the Law on Local Elections and is located in Giurgiu Municipality, Bulevardul Bucureşti, № 10, consists of 31 county councilors, of which one president and two vice-presidents.
Address: Bucharest Boulevard № 49-51, Giurgiu
The industrial sector is dominated by the Giurgiu Free Zone, with access to the Danube, the Industrial Park and the Business Incubator in Giurgiu Nord. The industry is characterized by the disappearance of large industrial capacities and the emergence of smaller firms, geared to the needs of the market. The construction of river ships (discontinued in 1993 and resumed in 2003), metallurgy and machine building, metallic confections, building materials, textiles and garments, food and services are highlighted. With the construction of a new cargo port, separate from the Fluvial Passenger Railway Station, Giurgiu will become an important transit point for goods on the Asia - Europe route, due to multimodal transport.
The VOESTALPINE concern is an important landmark in the city's economy.
The agricultural area of Giurgiu Municipality is 1943 hectares, of which 1855 ha of arable land, 10 ha of pastures, 70 ha of vineyards and 8 ha of orchards. Geoclimatic conditions are generally favorable to agricultural activities, but account must be taken of the characteristic features of the hydrological conditions of the area. Thus, the alternation of droughts and excessively humid years is observed, and in the conditions of excessive precipitation and the presence of groundwater at low depths, puddles are recorded.
The decline of the industrial sector has led to a reorientation of the work towards the development of services and, increasingly, tourism. So, in Giurgiu Municipality the operational capacities have been established and expanded companies that offer from cable television and internet services at laundries and car services, from passenger and freight to trades on the real estate market, from public catering to security and security protection. Last but not least, the network of accommodation units in hotels and motels has expanded and now covers several service quality steps. Also, the National Tourist Information Center was established in the municipality Giurgiu.
- The Fortress of Mircea cel Batran was built or restored on older ruins, perhaps ancient Roman, Byzantine or Bulgarian and most likely long before 1386.
- Clock Tower – it is located in Union Square in Giurgiu, dating from the late eighteenth century, during the Ottoman occupation.
- Bizetz – the first bridge curved horizontal PLN built in Europe. It was inaugurated in 1905 to connect the port city of Giurgiu and Ramadan with access channel over St. George Canal.
- The Harbor Master building - Romanian River Navigation Palace (Port Captaincy building), built between 1939-1945, by architect Petre Antonescu.
- Friendship Bridge - opened on 20 June 1954 and designed by V. Andreev, the bridge is 2.8 kilometers long, and is one of two bridges over the Danube, along with Calafat-Vidin bridge.
- County Museum was established in 1934 by a decision of the Prefecture of Vlaşca at the suggestion of Ion Andrieşescu, and was given the name of the first professor of archaeology at the University of Iaşi, Teohari Antonescu from Giurgiu.
- Athenaeum Nicolae Balanescu was built after the model of a Greek temple and have as a symbol on the facade, the “Roman Eagle”.
- Romanian Athenaeum "Nicolae Balanescu" was built in just a few months in 1940, as a result of a philanthropic gesture of the lawyer Nicolae Balanescu, who has decided to demolish his house and wih the resulting materials to built the Athenaeum.
- Ion Vinea Cultural Center - cultural and artistic activity is the mainstay of Giurgiu. Its work is based on a rich cultural and musical tradition sustained over time by great personalities like Victor Karpis, Teodor Bratu, Gheorghe Barbulescu.
- Tudor Vianu Theater - it was created in November 1981 and was the first institution of dramatic arts in Giurgiu. The first name was Ion Vasilescu Theatre. In 1993 the name was changed into Wallach Theatre, but since 2011 it is the Tudor Vianu Theatre.
- Border Police Museum – was created on 24 July 2002, to celebrate 138 years of institutional Border Police, the building became the headquarters of the Romanian Border Police Museum, the only institution of its kind in Romania.
- CNIM - National College "Ion Maiorescu" is a historical personality in educational system of Giurgiu and has emerged as a necessity of education for young people in this area in 1869, in the late 19th century. Since then and until now, a number of students have studied here.
- Town Railway Station - the railway was put into operation on 7 September 1869 and it was the first track on the Romanian territory. The route began in Bucharest on Filaret Station, which is the oldest station in the Romanian capital.