The Roman presence in Mealhada Municipality is highlighted by a milestone (dating back to 39 AD), part of the route of Roman Olissipo which follows the west side of the river. This finding is exhibited in the lobby of the town hall building. Elbocoris oppidum, or small Roman fort is believed to be at the core of an archaeological site located in Vimieira and dated to the centuries I to IV. Roman coins and pottery have been found in Barcouço.
With the conquest of Coimbra in 878, the territory surrounding Mealhada was reclaimed by the Christian forces, only to return to Arab hands in 987 before being finally regained by the Christians in 1064. Several monasteries were erected in the area, the most important of which was the Vacariça Monastery.
On September 12, 1514 Aveiro and Vacariça received city charter by King Manuel I, but the lands of the present-day Mealhada Municipality remained under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Coimbra.
The great liberal reforms undertaken during the reign of Queen Maria II in the 19th century resolved the territorial controversy.