The first written mention about the village of Câmpulung Moldovenesc dates back to April 14th, 1411. At that time the ruling prince of Moldavia was Alexandru cel Bun.
Historian Dimitrie Cantemir, in his well-known work "Descriptio Moldaviae", mentions the "Ocolul Câmpulung" as an autonomous region in northern Moldavia that has its own rules and leaders. This region consisted of 15 villages. Together with the rest of Bukovina, Câmpulung Moldovenesc was under the rule of the Habsburg Monarchy (later Austria-Hungary) from 1775 to 1918. Câmpulung was in the Austrian part of the empire after the compromise of 1867, administrative center of the eponimous district. Other main district cities were Dorna Watra (Vatra Dornei) and Wama (Vama) in 1900.
Later, between 1925-1950, Câmpulung Moldovenesc was the capital of the former Câmpulung County, the largest county in Bukovina.
"Câmpulung" means "Long Field" in Romanian and Moldovenesc ("Moldavian") is used to differentiate between this town and Câmpulung Muscel (Argeș County, Wallachia).